Early Childhood Development
Ages and Stages 12-24Months
Physical Development

The first to notice in these children is that their motor movement is not fully developed as yet and is not very stable and coordinated. They are slow in walking and running that is why their playareas should be kept separate from that of the slightly older kids. Although they walk and run they miss the mark sometimes and just brush against walls or other things lying around. If they are holding something or seeing another object that distracts from the task of walking they usually hit something. They cannot co-ordinate two actions as yet. Following from the Maturational Theory there is not enough readiness or neurological ripening for coordinated tasks. They do try to carry objects bigger than themselves but usually give up after trying a few times or walking a few steps. They are not strong or stable enough for that. But they do understand everything that you tell them to do and are able to communicate what they want.

Social and Emotional Development

Children usually reach the peak of exhibiting "stranger anxiety" the wariness of unfamiliar adults around this time. They try to look for, reach for and stay close to the people they have bonded with. Some show intense feelings for parents and show affection for other familiar people. Children become more aware of themselves and their ability to make things happen. They express a wider range of emotions and are more likely to initiate interaction with other people. At this stage, most children begin to recognize themselves in pictures or the mirror and smile or make faces at themselves. Most of them play by themselves and initiate their own play and they imitate adult behaviors in play .They begin to express negative feelings and show pride and pleasure at new accomplishments. Their personalities start taking shape and some show a strong sense of self through assertiveness, directing others and asking for what they want and sometimes even expressing their likes and dislikes strongly. Begin to be helpful, such as by helping to put things away.

Cognitive Development

Babies and toddlers build their intelligence and knowledge about the world around them by sensing and and reacting to their environment. During this age they are interested in experimenting with diffrent ways to achieve results and in the course of experimenting they often invent and discover new ways to act on the world. After about 18 months the child invents and starts thinking of ways to accomplish goals. They start to develop insight by thinking rather than just acting on what they see, its not just trial and error its well thought of strategy to achieve goals. With this ability the child has much more control of his world. e.g when playing with a shape box, older toddlers can inspect the shape of the individual piece and decide where it needs to go. They imitate adults' actions and language understand words and commands and respond appropriately begin to match similar objects and recognize and identify familiar objects in storybooks with adult assistance. Understand and distinguish between "you" and "me".

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